On which wealth is Zakat obligatory? What is Nisab of Zakat?

zakat percentage, Nisab of zakat, what kinds of things does zakat pay for, zakat Nisab, zakat percentage on cash, zakat amount, Nisab zakat, what percentage is zakat, what is Nisab of zakat

On-which-wealth-is-Zakat-obligatory-What-is-Nisab-of-Zakat

On which wealth is Zakat obligatory? What is Nisab of Zakat?

Bismillahir Rahmani Rahim, Today’s topic of discussion is On which wealth is Zakat obligatory and What is Nisab of Zakat.

On which wealth is Zakat obligatory?

Allah Ta’ala has given wealth to His servants and has allocated a portion of that wealth to the poor. However, he did not impose Zakat on all wealth. Rather, the order came to collect zakat on four types of wealth. which is as follows-

(1) Gold, Silver, Currency, and Business products

(2) Domestic animals

(3) Grains and fruits

(4) Mineral and underground resources

Zakat is obligatory on any independent Muslim who owns any one of the four types of wealth amounting to Nisab. But the first two types viz. (1. Gold, silver coins and trade goods 2. Domestic animals) condition for wealth is that it should be owned for one lunar year but the last two types viz. (3. Grains and fruits 4. Minerals and soil) Content hidden inside) There is no such condition for wealth i.e. Zakat must be paid only when the wealth is owned. Below are the details of the four types of wealth and their Nisab:

(1) Gold, Silver, Currency, and Business products

Zakat is obligatory on someone if he has a Nisab amount of gold or silver for a period of one lunar year, if he has an amount of movable currency equal to its market value, or if he has a number of trade goods equal to it. Again, if this four combined amount to Nisab, then Zakat is obligatory on him. It should be noted that if a person has a debt, it should be deducted from the total assets and then if it is the amount of Nisab then Zakat should be paid.

Zakat on gold and silver

Zakat is obligatory on gold and silver if it is a Nisab amount. Allah Ta’ala says, Give glad tidings of a grievous chastisement to those who hoard gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah. On the Day it will be heated in the Fire of Hell and their foreheads, sides, and faces will be stained with it. On that day it will be said, This is what you save for yourselves. So enjoy what you have saved. (Repentance 9/34-35). 

In the hadith, it was narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (RA), who said, The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Every owner of gold and silver who does not pay his right (Zakat) will surely have many layers of fire prepared for him on the Day of Resurrection, and all of them will be in Hellfire.” He will be heated in the fire and his ribs, forehead, and back will be scarred. When it cools down, it will be reheated (so it will be done) on that day, which will be equal to fifty thousand years. (His punishment will continue) until the judgment of the servants is settled. Then he will take his way, either to Paradise or to Hell.

Muslim Ha/987; Mishkat Ha/1773, Banganubad Mishkat (Emdadia) 4/123 p.

Zakat on ornaments used

Commercial gold i.e. gold that is stored for the purpose of trading is obligatory on gold, and on gold used for haram purposes, such as gold used by men and women’s ornaments made in the shape of any animal, which is haram to use, zakat is also obligatory on such gold. In this regard, the ulama has reached a consensus. Because such use of gold is unnecessary. On the other hand, is Zakat Fard on the ornaments used by women in a legitimate way? There is a difference of opinion among the ulama in this regard. But according to Sahih, Zakat is obligatory on gold and silver ornaments used by women. There is a hadith about the zakat of ornaments used by women.

On the authority of Amr Ibn Shuaib (RA), a woman came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) with her daughter. In her daughter’s hand were two thick gold bangles. He said to him, do you give its zakat? The woman said no. Then the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Would you prefer that Allah, the Exalted, should clothe you with a pair of fire rings on the Day of Resurrection instead?” Rabi said, hearing this, the girl took it from her hand and placed it in front of the Prophet (PBUH) and said, These two are for Allah and His Messenger.

Abu Dawud ha/1563, chapter ‘Zakat’, section ‘Zakat on collected wealth and ornaments’, Sanad Hasan.

In another hadith, mother Aisha (RA) said,

Once the Messenger of Allah (PHUB) came to me and saw a big silver ring in my hand and said, O Ayesha! What is it? I said, O Messenger (pbuh)! Created for your beautification purpose. He asked, do you give its zakat? I said, No, or whatever Allah willed. He said, “That is enough to take you to hell.” 

Abu Dawud Ha/1565, Sahih.

Current Currency Zakat

Early people knew nothing about cash. They traded goods for goods. Then gradually the use of cash started. At the same time, gold and silver were accepted as special objects. When the Messenger of Allah (PHUB) was sent, the Arab society of that time used to buy and sell among themselves gold and silver coins. ‘Dinar’ was made of gold, and ‘Dirham’ was made of silver. But because it was small and large, the weight would vary. For this reason, the people of Makkah during the Jahili period did not use it based on counting, rather they used it based on weight. It is mainly for this reason that 85 grams of gold and 595 grams of silver have been levied based on the weight of 20 dinars and 200 dirhams respectively for gold and silver. Therefore the current circulating currency will replace gold or silver.

Zakat on business goods

Zakat is obligatory on all goods which are bought and sold with the hope of profit. 

Allah says, O believers! Spend the best of what you earn and what I produce for you from the land and do not resolve to spend its worst, But you will not receive it unless you close your eyes. And know that surely Allah is free from lack, praised. (Baqarah 2/267).

It is stated in the verse: “What you earn” means commercial goods.

It should be noted that if there is any item in the store that is not to be sold, Zakat is not required. For example, refrigerators are used to keep products cold. Similarly, the furniture of the shop which is not sold does not have to collect zakat.

(2) Domestic animals

Zakat is obligatory on someone who owns certain domesticated stray animals for up to a period of one year. And the animals are, 

(a) Camel

(b) Cows and buffaloes

(d) Goats, sheep, and goats. 

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Every person who owns camels, cows, and goats who does not pay their Zakat, surely they will be brought on the Day of Resurrection in a large and very fat condition.” They will trample him in droves with their razors and beat him with their horns. Whenever the last group of them crosses over, the first group will come again and do the same with him, until the judgment of the people is finished.

Bukhari Ha/1460, Banganubad (Tawheed Publications) 2/121 pp.; Muslim Ha/990; Mishkat Ha/1775, Banganubad Mishkat (Emdadia) 4/126 p.

(3) Harvest

Zakat is obligatory on all grains and fruits that can be stored and sold by weight. For example – wheat, barley, dates, raisins, etc. Allah Ta’ala says, “It is He Who created the vines and the gardens, and the date trees, the grains of various tastes, the olives and the pomegranates – both alike and unlike each other.” When it is fruitful, eat its fruit and pay its right (zakat) on the day of harvest and do not waste it; Surely He does not love the wasteful. (An’am 6/141). 

On the authority of Omar Ibnul Khattab (RA), he said, The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) introduced zakat on four crops: wheat, barley, raisins, and dates.

Sunan Darakutani Ha/1936; Silsila Chahihah Ha/879.

In another hadith, on the authority of Musa Ibn Talha (RA), he said, We had the letter sent by the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) to Mu’adh (RA). So he accepted zakat of wheat, barley, raisins, and dates.

Musnad Ahmad Ha/ 2041; Silsila Chahihah, Ha/879.

Although Zakat of four grains mentioned in the mentioned hadiths is mentioned, these four are not specified. Rather, it includes all crops that can be weighed and stored. Such as rice, corn, etc.

Therefore, zakat is not obligatory on crops that cannot be stored. For example, there is no zakat (Ushar) on vegetables or raw materials. Rasoolullah (PBUH) said, there is no zakat (Ushar) on vegetables. 

Sahih Jameus Sagir Ha/5411, Albany, Sanad Sahih.

It should be noted that if the sale proceeds of such assets exceed one year and the Nisab amount, 2.50 percent Zakat must be paid.

When is zakat of grain obligatory?

When the grain is ripe and it is harvested, the zakat must be paid for the grain. Allah Ta’ala says He will pay his right (Zakat) on the day of harvest. (An’am 6/141).

(4) Mineral and underground resources

Mineral resources, which Allah Ta’ala has created for people and placed under the ground. For example – gold, silver, copper, etc. And it is obligatory to pay zakat on the wealth kept by the people of previous eras, which people find inside the ground. 

Allah says, O believers! Spend the best of what you earn and what I produce for you from the land. (Baqarah 2/267).

In the explanation of this verse, Imam Qurtubi (RA) said, production from the land means crops, mineral resources, and people’s hidden wealth.

Rasulullah (s.a.w.s.) said that injury to a four-legged animal is exempt. Well (owner in case of death of a worker in digging) exempted, mine (owner in case of death of a worker in digging) exempted. One-fifth of Rikarya (hidden wealth of man) is obligatory.

Bukhari Ha/1499, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Banganubad (Tawheed Publications) 2/127 p.; Muslim Ha/1710; Mishkat Ha/1798.

Time to take out one-fifth of the treasure

The external meaning of the hadith says that it is not necessary to complete the year to take out one-fifth of the treasure, but one-fifth of it should be given as zakat when it is received, and no one disagrees with this. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said One-fifth of the treasure is obligatory.

He did not stipulate the completion of the year.

There is no Zakat on which wealth?

Zakat is not required for the daily necessities of people such as food, drinks, furniture, vehicles, clothing, houses, markets, land, and all other consumables including ornaments except gold and silver. Because the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no zakat on Muslims’ slaves, plaintiffs, and horses.” Zakat will not be due on goods prepared for rent. However, Zakat will come on the money received from them after the completion of Nisab.

Nisab of Zakat

(1) Nisab of Zakat on Gold, Silver, Currency, and Business products

Zakat is obligatory on someone if he has the Nisab amount of gold or silver fixed by Islamic Shari’ah for a period of one lunar year, if he has an amount of movable currency equal to its market price, or if he has a number of trade goods equal to it. Again, if this four combined amount to Nisab, then Zakat is obligatory on him. It should be noted that if a person has a debt, it should be deducted from the total assets and then if it is the amount of Nisab then Zakat should be paid. Nisab of the two metals is mentioned below:

Nisab of gold

About this, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, Zakat on gold of fewer than twenty dinars is not obligatory. If a person has 20 dinars worth of gold for a year, half a dinar should be paid as zakat. After that, the increase will be calculated in the same way.

Abu Dawud ha/1573, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Albani, Sahih Sahih.

Note that 1 dinar is equal to 4.25 grams of gold as mentioned in the hadith. Therefore 20 dinars equal to 20 × 4.25 = 85 grams of gold. That is, if someone has the mentioned amount of gold for one year, then it is obligatory to pay 2.50% Zakat of the total wealth as per the current selling price of the said gold.

Nisab of gold with alloy

In the current market, gold is not weighted by excluding alloy when buying and selling; Rather than being weighted with shafts. Therefore, if the amount of gold including alloy is Nisab, Zakat is obligatory on it.

Nisab of silver

Referring to the Nisab of silver, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “There is no zakat on silver less than five Ukiyas”.

Bukhari ha/1484, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Muslim ha/979; Mishkat Ha/1794.

Note that 1 ukiya is equal to 40 dirhams. So 5 ukiya is equal to 40 x 5 = 200 dirhams.

Elsewhere the Prophet (PBUH) said:

For every 40 dirhams, you will pay 1 dirham as zakat. Nothing is obligatory on you until the 200 dirhams are fulfilled. If 200 dirhams are fulfilled, his zakat will be 5 dirhams and if it is in excess, his zakat should be paid according to the above calculations.

Abu Dawud ha/1572, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Albani, Sahih Sahih.

200 dirhams is equal to 595 grams of silver mentioned in this hadith. 1 bari is equal to 11.66 grams, so 595 grams equals 595 ÷ 11.66 = 51.02 bars of silver. If someone has the said amount of silver for a year, it is obligatory to collect a zakat of 2.50% of the total assets as per the current selling price.

Current Currency Nisab

Whether it is dirhams, dinars, dollars, or Takas that people are trading in today’s world, if it reaches the Nisab value of gold or silver and a period of one year has passed on that currency, then Zakat is obligatory on it. During the time of the Prophet (PHUB), one dinar was equal to ten dirhams. So twenty dinars of gold and two hundred dirhams of silver were equal in value. Because of this, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) mentioned the Nisab of gold and silver as twenty dinars and two hundred dirhams respectively.

Nisab of Business products

The Nisab of Zakat on merchandise is equivalent to the value of 85 grams of gold or 595 grams of silver.

Amount of money in terms of gold Nisab

According to the hadith, 1 dinar is equal to 4.25 grams of gold. Therefore 20 dinars equal to 20 × 4.25 = 85 grams of gold. According to the current market price of gold, 1 gram = 65 dollars. Therefore 85 grams = 5525 dollars.

Amount of money in terms of silver Nisab

According to the hadith, 200 dirhams equals 595 grams of silver. 1 bari is equal to 11.66 grams, so 595 grams is equal to 595 ÷ 11.66 = 51.02 bars of silver. According to the current market price of silver 1 gram = .8 dollars. Therefore 595 grams = 476 dollars.

Will I accept Nisab of gold or Nisab of silver?

In the present world, a large difference is observed between the Nisab amount of gold and silver. Now shall we determine the Nisab of cash current currency and commodity based on gold or silver? There is a difference of opinion among the ulama in this regard. Since the value of gold is more stable than that of silver and universally accepted, most scholars are in favor of giving zakat according to gold calculations. However, since zakat is a means of consecrating and purifying wealth, zakat can also be paid in cash on currency and trade goods in the form of silver.

(2) Nisab of Zakat on domestic animals

In order for zakat on domestic animals to be obligatory, one must own the number of animals prescribed by Islamic Shari’ah and must have owned them for a period of one lunar year. And that is 40 goats, sheep and goats, 30 cows, and 5 camels. Zakat is not obligatory on him if it is less than the mentioned number. 

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, there is no zakat on less than five camels. 

Bukhari Ha/1447, chapter ‘Zakat’, paragraph ‘Zakat on Silver’; Muslim Ha/979. 

In another hadith, it was narrated on the authority of Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (RA), who said, When the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) sent me to Yemen, he ordered me to pay the zakat of cows one ‘Musinnah’ (cows entering their third year beyond two years) for every forty cows. ) and in every thirty will take one ‘Tabee’ or ‘Tabeeah’ (a cow entering the second year beyond one year).

Tirmidhi Ha/623; Nasa’i Ha/2450; Ibn Majah ha/1803; Mishkat Ha/1800, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Albani, Sanad Sahih.

Elsewhere the Prophet (PBUH) said, If the number of domestic goats is less than forty, there is no Zakat on him.

Bukhari Ha/1454, chapter ‘Zakat’, paragraph ‘Zakat of goats’; Mishkat Ha/1796. 

(3) Nisab of Zakat on Harvest

About the Nisab of zakat on crops, the Prophet (PHUB) said, there is no zakat on crops produced for less than five Wasaks.

Bukhari Ha/1484, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Banganubad (Tawheed Publications) 2/120 p.; Muslim Ha/979; Mishkat Ha/1794.

1 Wasak is equal to 60 Cha’. So 5 Wasak is equal to 60 x 5 = 300 sq. If 1 cha’ is equal to 2 kg 500 grams then 300 cha is equal to 750 kg. That is, if 18 maunds of 30 kg of crops are produced, Zakat is obligatory on it.

Will one grain fill the Nisab of another grain?

If a person produces 10 maunds of paddy and 10 maunds of wheat, should he combine both crops and pay zakat? No – will any of them refrain from paying zakat due to the lack of Nisab amount? The Sahih opinion in this regard is that wheat, barley, paddy, etc. are each separate crops. Therefore, zakat is obligatory only if the grains are separately amounting to Nisab. Otherwise, it is not obligatory. However, different classes of the same crop belong to the same family. For example, different classes of rice including Miniket, Parija, China, and Swarna belong to the same Nisab.

Sahih Fiqhs Sunnah 2/45 p.

(4) Nisab of mineral and underground resources

According to the external meaning of the hadith, specific Nisab is not a condition for the zakat of treasures to be wajib. Most scholars have said this. Therefore, whoever receives the treasure of the Jahili era, will pay one-fifth of it in Zakat, whether the amount is less or more.

What percentage is Zakat?

(1) What percentage is Zakat on Gold, Silver, Currency, and Business products

For deducting zakat on gold, silver, movable currency, and commercial goods, the current selling price of the said gold and silver, the current market price of the collected goods (current purchase price), and cash currency, if any, after deducting it from the total assets, 2. 50% zakat is obligatory i.e. 2.50% of the total assets divided by 40 should be given as zakat. And this is the zakat of gold and silver and what comes under its command. For example, someone has gold, silver, and currency, and trades goods together worth dollars 40,000. The rule for deducting zakat from that amount is 40,000 ÷ 40 = 1,000 dollars. 1,000 dollars should be donated as Zakat from 40,000 dollars in the mentioned method.

(2) Amount of Zakat on domestic animals

In this case, one thing needs to be remembered. That is, only the animal should be paid as zakat of the animal, not the price.

A. Amount of zakat on camels

1. If the camel is less than 5 then there is no zakat.

2. For 5 – 9 camels A goat.

3. For 10 – 14 camels Two goats.

4. For 15 – 19 camels Three goats.

5. For 20 – 24 camels Four goats.

6. For 25 – 35 camels a she-camel is 2 years old.

7. For 36 – 45 camels a she-camel is 3 years old.

8. for 46 – 60 camels a camel is four years old.

9. For 60 – 75 camels a she-camel is five years old.

10. For 76 – 90 camels 2 camels are three years old.

11. For 91 – 120 camels 2 camels are four years old.

If it is in excess, the same rule applies.

b. Amount of zakat on cows and buffaloes

1. If the number of cows and buffaloes is less than 30 then there is no zakat.

2. For 30 – 39 Cows and Buffaloes One full-year-old cow/buffalo calf.

3. For 40 – 59 cows and buffaloes A 2-year-old calf.

4. If there is an excess of 60, one-year-old for every 30 cows and buffaloes and 2 years old for every 40 cows and buffaloes.

c. Amount of Zakat on Goat, and Sheep

1. If the number of goats, and sheep is less than 40 then there is no zakat.

2. For 40 – 120 goats, and sheep A goat/sheep.

3. For 121 – 280 goats, and sheep two goats/sheep.

4. For 201 – 399 goats, and sheep Three goats/sheep.

5.  For 400 goats, and sheep Four goats/sheep.

6. If more than 400, 1 goat/sheep for every 100 goats, and sheep.

The sheep/goat to be given as Zakat should not be less than one year old.

(3) What percentage is Zakat on Harvest

If the Nisab amount of grain is produced in rainwater, 1/10th of zakat is obligatory. And if you produce by irrigation, 1/20th of zakat is obligatory.

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said that ‘Ushar’ (one-tenth) of Zakat is wajib on crops grown on land wetted by rain and spring water or on crops grown in water from drains. And ‘half Ushar’ (one-twentieth) of Zakat is Wajib on crops produced by irrigation.

Bukhari Ha/1483, ‘Zakat’ chapter, I, Banganubad 2/119 p.; Mishkat Ha/1797.

Percentage of Zakat on crops produced through both rainwater and artificial irrigation

Crops that are not produced solely by rainwater or artificial irrigation alone. Rather, some part is produced by rainwater and some part is produced through artificial irrigation. The rule for extracting zakat from that crop is that if the amount of rainwater is more, then one-tenth of zakat must be paid. And if the amount of artificial irrigation is more, one-twentieth of zakat must be paid.

And if half of it is produced by rainwater and half by artificial irrigation, then three-fourths of one-tenth is due as Zakat. In other words, if the amount of rainwater is more than 20 maunds of paddy, then one-tenth of that i.e. two maunds of zakat must be paid. And if the amount of artificial irrigation is more, then one-twentieth part, i.e. one man, should be given as zakat. And if half of the rainwater and half of it is produced through self-irrigation, one-tenth of it, three-fourths of it, i.e. one maund and twenty kilograms of zakat must be paid. Ibnu Qudama (RA) said I do not know that there is any difference of opinion among the scholars in this regard.

Ibn Qudama, Sharhul Kabir 2/563 p.; Muhammad bin Saleh al-Uthaymeen, Sharhul Mumte’ 6/78 p.; Fatawa Lajna Dayma 9/176 p.; Fiqhs Sunnah 1/354 p.; Naylul Awtar 4/201 p.; Yusuf Karjawi, Fiqhuz Zakat 1/333 p.

(4) What percentage is Zakat on Mineral and underground resources

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Zakat is one-fifth of hidden treasure”. That is, the one who gets the treasure will pay one-fifth of the treasure. 

Bukhari Ha/1499, ‘Zakat’ chapter, Banganubad (Tawheed Publications) 2/127 p.; Muslim Ha/1710; Mishkat Ha/1798.

On which wealth is Zakat obligatory? What is Nisab of Zakat?

zakat percentage, Nisab of zakat, what kinds of things does zakat pay for, zakat Nisab, zakat percentage on cash, zakat amount, Nisab zakat, what percentage is zakat, what is Nisab of zakat

What are the conditions of Zakat to be obligatory?

Importance of Zakat in Islam and punishment for not paying Zakat

Zakat meaning and What is zakat in Islam?

Nisab Value – What is Nisab? – Zakat and Nisab