Rules of fasting in Islam. Pillars of fasting in Islam


Rules of fasting in Islam. Pillars of fasting in Islam

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim – Rules of fasting. There are two Rukn or pillars of fasting, the combination of which completes the fast. E.g.

  1. Intend

  2. Abstain from eating and drinking

1. Niyyat

The first of the two rukans or fards of the rosary is niyyat. The intention is the determination of the heart to fast in order to obey the command of Allah Almighty. 

God the Almighty said,

They were not instructed except that they should worship Allah sincerely, establish prayer and pay zakat. That is the true religion.

Quran 96/5

And the Prophet said,

All actions depend on intention and man deserves what he intends.

Sahih Bukhari Hadith No. 1

Therefore, it is obligatory for the person who is fasting (such as Ramadan, Qaya, or Kaffarar) to make niyyat. And the intention is the work of the heart; It has nothing to do with the face. Its reality is to obey the command of Allah Almighty and to do any work for the purpose of gaining His satisfaction. Needless to say, it is a bidat to read Nawaitu an Asuma Gadam Min Shahri Ramazan. In fact, the person who knows in his mind that he will fast tomorrow, and then he will eat sehri for the purpose of fasting, will become his intention. Accordingly, the person who, with a pure heart for Allah, decides to abstain from all kinds of things during the day (from dawn to sunset) will have his intention, even if he has not had the opportunity to eat sehri.

Of course, it must be done before Fajr. But if you do it in any part of the night, it is enough and valid.

Narrated from Hafsa (R)

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: He who does not intend to fast before Fajr has not fasted. 

Jame At-Tirmidhi Hadith No. 630

On the other hand, in the case of ordinary Nafl Ramadan; it is not a condition to observe it from the night. On the contrary, if you do not eat anything after the dawn of Fajr; even if you intend it during the day, it will be enough.

Narrated from Aisha (R)

He said, ” Once the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to me and said, ‘Do you have anything?’ I said no. He said, “Then I am fasting.” Then another day he came to us. We said, O Messenger of Allah! Hayes (dates mixed with ghee and cheese) has been sent to us as gifts. He said, “Show me that. I am fasting.” Then he ate it.

Sahih Muslim Hadith No. 2605

Moreover, in the case of certain nafl (such as Arafa and Ashura) fasting, the precautionary action is to observe it from night tonight.

For Ramadan fasting, there is no need to renew the intention every night of Ramadan. Rather, it is enough to make the intention to fast once a month at the beginning of Ramadan. So if it is assumed that a person fell asleep on a certain day of Ramadan before sunset. Then he woke up the next day after dawn. That is, he did not get a chance to fast on this day at night. But still his fast will be pure. Because, at the beginning of the month, he intended to fast for the whole month.

Yes, but if a person has broken his intention by not fasting due to travel, illness, or any other excuse, it is necessary to renew his intention to fast again after the excuse has been removed. 

The person who decided to eat or drink again decided that he would be patient. So he did not eat or drink. The opinion of such a person will not be wasted just because of his desire and determination to eat and drink. And this work is like that of a person who does not speak after wishing to speak in prayer or does not perform ablution after wanting to do so (leaving the air). Just as this prayer will not invalidate the prayer and its ablution will be pure as a result of this desire of the worshiper, similarly, after the desire of the fasting person to eat and drink, his fasting will not be invalidated. Since the principle is that a person who intends to do something forbidden in worship but does not do so in practice, his worship is not wasted.

On the other hand, a person who breaks his intention thinking that he will not fast, his fast is void.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: All actions depend on intention and man deserves what he intends.

Sahih Bukhari Hadith No. 1

If a fasting person becomes an apostate, even if he repents immediately, his fast will be broken. Because the work of the idols destroys and separates the intention of worship. And there is no disagreement in this regard.

It is important to note that it is obligatory for every Muslim to believe in Allah, to hope for his reward, and to fast only for the sake of His satisfaction. Fasting should not be done for the purpose of showing off or showing off to someone, or just blindly imitating the sight of people, or imitating the country or family environment. (For example, fasting is for the benefit of the body and health). Rather, it is obligatory to urge him to fast in the belief that Allah Almighty has made it obligatory on him and that he observes it and expects a reward from him. 

Narrated by Abu Hurairah

He said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Whoever observes the fast of Ramadan in the hope of virtue with faith, his previous sins are forgiven.

Sahih Bukhari Hadith No. 36

Therefore, the purpose of fasting is not the exercise of body or health after enduring hunger and suffering, but the practice of the soul on giving up the beloved for the sake of gaining the pleasure of Allah.

The most beloved things to be abandoned in the kingdom are food and sexual intercourse. And that is the desire of the soul. The satisfaction of the beloved is the satisfaction of the Almighty. So let us keep in mind that we will give up that desire-destroying object in the hope of gaining the pleasure of Allah Almighty.

2. Abstain from eating and drinking

Abstaining from all things that spoil the state from dawn till the setting of the sun. 

God the Almighty said,

That is, and you eat and drink until the white thread of Fajr is clear to you from the black thread. Then complete the fast till nightfall. 

Verse 16 of Surah Baqara

The black yarn and white yarn mentioned in the verse refer to the darkness of night and the whiteness of day. 

Narrated from Adi (R)

He (Adi) put on white and black yarn. But when the night was over, he opened it and saw no difference between black and white. When morning came, he said, “O Messenger of Allah, I put it under my pillow (two white and black threads) (and he told the story of the night). Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, I see your pillow is too big if the black and white thread (Subhi Qayyib and Subhi Sadiq) is under your pillow. (The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard the narration of Adi and said jokingly, “If you put the whole sky under your pillow, then I see that pillow is too big.

Sahih Bukhari Hadith No. 4509

In another description, 

Narrated from Adi Ibn Hatim

He said, “When this verse was revealed, ‘You eat and drink (night) from the black line (of the dawn) until the white line is clearly visible to you, then I took a black and a white rope and put them both under my pillow.” At night I keep looking at them. But the difference was not revealed to me. So in the morning I went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and told him about it. He said: It is the darkness of night and the light of day.

Sahih Bukhari Hadith No. 1917

Tags: rules of fasting in Islam, rules of fasting in Quran, rules of fasting in Ramadan, rules of fasting during Ramadan, 

Islamic Legal Rules of Fasting