Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
What is Qurbani in English? Qurbani rules in Islam
what is qurbani
The Arabic word qurban is known as Qurbani in Persian or Urdu, which means proximity. And the word Qurban is derived from the word Qurbatun. The literal meaning of both the Arabic words qurbatun and qurban is to be close, to get close to someone, and so on. In Islamic terminology, qurban or Qurbani is the name of the animal that is sacrificed according to certain rules at a certain time in order to attain nearness to Allah Almighty.
The word Qurban is used in three places in the Qur’an. And in the hadith, the words Uzhiyah and Zahiyah have been used instead of the word Qurban. The sacrificial camels, cows, goats, or sheep are said to be sacrificed for the purpose of attaining nearness to God on the days of Uzhiyah Qurbani. This word is taken from the word Zuha which means east. Since the best time to offer a sacrifice is 10 Zilhajj, that is, on the eve of the day of Eid, it has been called Uzhiyah for that consistency. It is also called Zahiyah or Azhah. And the plural of Azhah is Azha with which the name of Eid has become Eid-ul-Azha.
The world’s first Qurbani
The history of sacrifice is very ancient. The provision of sacrifice has been going on since the time of that original father Adam (a). We learn from the great book Al-Quran that the sacrifice of Abel and Cain, the two sons of Adam (a).
God the Almighty said,
Tell them the story of the two sons of Adam. When they both offered sacrifices, the sacrifice of one was accepted and the sacrifice of the other was not accepted. One of them said, “I will kill you.” Others said that Allah accepts the sacrifices of the moderate. ( Surat al-Ma’ida: 26)
The qurbani of Ibrahim (a)
Sacrifice has been made obligatory upon us from the sacrifice of Ibrahim (AS). (Abraham prayed to me) My Lord, grant me a good son. Then We gave him the good news of a patient son. Then when he reached the age of walking with his father, Ibrahim said: O my son, I have seen in a dream that I am sacrificing you. Now tell me, what do you think? He said: O my father! Do as I have been commanded, and if Allah wills, you will find me patient. When both of them bowed their heads in obedience and Ibrahim laid him down on his side.
Then I called out to him: O Ibrahim! Thus do We reward the doers of good. Of course, it was an obvious test. I redeemed my son in exchange for a great sacrifice. And I made him memorable among the later ones. Peace be upon Abraham! Thus do We reward the doers of good. He was one of My believing servants. (Surat as-Saffat: 100-111)
The purpose of the Qurbani
The purpose of sacrificing an animal is to attain nearness to the one God, to please him, that is, to worship him. And Allah Ta’ala has created us to worship Him. As he says,
I created the jinn and mankind that they may worship Me alone. (Surah Az-Zariyat: 57)
Ibadat is the name of Tawheed, meaning obedience to the Oneness of God. So by shedding the blood of animals we bear witness to the oneness of God as Abraham (peace be upon him) did and Abel did.
The provision of Qurbani
All Muslims agree that sacrifice is obligatory. There is no disagreement in this regard. But what is the ruling on sacrifice? Wajib or Sunnat? There are two opinions among the Imams and the jurists in this regard.
Like the first – Qurbani is obligatory. This is the case with Imam Awzai, Imam Lais, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad, and others.
The second way – Qurbani Sunnah Muakkadah. It is like most ulama. It is famous like Imam Malik and Imam Shafi’i. But the proponents of this view again say that it is makrooh to abandon the sacrifice when one can afford it. If the people of a town abandon the sacrifice collectively despite their ability, they will be fought against. Because Qurbani is a great symbol of Islam.
Documents of those who say Qurbani is obligatory-
- Allah Ta’ala has instructed –
Pray to your Lord and sacrifice the animals. (Surat al-Kawthar: 2)
And it is obligatory to follow the command of Allah Almighty.
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
The person who does not perform Qurbani in spite of his ability should not come near our Eidgah. ( Musnad Ahmad, Hakim, Ibn Majah)
This hadith is a warning to those who renounce sacrifice. So sacrifice is obligatory.
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
O all human beings! It is the responsibility of every family to make sacrifices every year. ( Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah)
Documents of those who say Qurbani Sunnat-
- The Prophet (peace be upon him) said-
Whoever wants to make a sacrifice among you, after seeing the moon of the month of Zilhajj, should not cut any of his hair and nails before completing the sacrifice. Sahih Muslim, Hadith No. 198. Hadith of the Prophet (s) of ‘ that wants to sacrifice ” by the word indicates it is not oyajib.
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed on behalf of those who did not sacrifice in his ummah. By this work it is understood that Qurbani is not obligatory.
In my opinion, the view that sacrifice is obligatory is correct. Because Allah Ta’ala has instructed the Prophet (peace be upon him) to offer sacrifice and the Prophet (peace be upon him) has urged us to offer sacrifice and has warned us.
On the other hand, the first of the two documents that have been presented regarding the circumcision of Qurbani states that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: In fact, the main purpose of this hadith is not to describe the provision of Qurbani, but the main purpose is to describe a specific period from the beginning of the month of Jilhaj to the completion of Qurbani. To sacrifice or not to sacrifice, who will sacrifice or who will not sacrifice is not a matter for discussion; Topic in question: specific period. And not everyone is able to offer a sacrifice, but not everyone does, so the one who wants to offer a sacrifice should do that particular deed, this is the main discussion of the hadith. Therefore, the provision of Qurbani cannot be documented by this hadith.
And in the second document,
it is said that the Prophet (peace be upon him) sacrificed on behalf of those among his ummah who did not sacrifice. Here, those who did not give due to their inability and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) offered sacrifices on their behalf.
And if it so happens that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made sacrifices on behalf of those who did not make sacrifices in spite of their ability, then why did He forbid them to come to the Eidgah as He forbade those who would not fast for a month in Ramadaan? Therefore, it is obligatory on those who are able to offer sacrifices. So those who think that the provision of Qurbani is relaxed or optional throw away this idea and get ready to offer Qurbani. The best act of worship on the day of Eid al-Adha is to offer a sacrifice, that is, to shed the blood of an animal.
The conditions for the Qurbani to be pure
A sacrifice is an act of worship. And worship will be acceptable to Allah only when it is really worship. If worship is like worship then it will be acceptable and if it is like anything else then how will it be accepted. Therefore, it is very important to understand what is worship. Only then will you be able to worship and it will be accepted InshaAllah.
What will the Qurbani animal be like?
- Six types of animals can be sacrificed and they are camel, cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, dumba. The best of these is the horned black and white dumba.
- The sacrificial animal must be of a certain age. Camels should be five years old, cows or buffaloes two years old, goats, sheep, dumba one year old. However, in case of difficulty, a six-month-old sheep can be sacrificed.
- The sacrificial animal must be free from all faults. As stated in the hadith-
The Companion Bara Ibn Azeeb (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stood among us and said: Sacrifice with four kinds of animals will not be permissible. Blind. Whose blindness is clear, diseased. the disease is obvious, lame. Whose paralysis is obvious and injured. limbs are broken? –Tirmizi.
Rules of Qurbani
- The animal must be determined in advance for sacrifice.
- The specified animal cannot be used for any other purpose, cannot be donated, cannot be sold. Since it is not lawful to buy or sell that which is ordained for Allah. But the sacrifice can be changed by a better animal to make it better.
- If the owner of the animal dies, it is the responsibility of his heirs to carry out this sacrifice. His heirs will sacrifice it and eat it themselves, donate it and give it as a token.
- No benefit can be enjoyed from the specified animal. For example, you can’t sell milk, you can’t use it in agriculture, you can’t sell wool.
- If the animal becomes defective or lost due to the negligence or carelessness of the sacrificial donor, then his duty will be to purchase a similar or better animal. And if it is not due to negligence or carelessness but due to some other reason, then that animal should be sacrificed.
If the animal is lost or stolen
- and the Qurbani is already obligatory on the giver of the Qurbani, then he will be relieved of the responsibility of the Qurbani. And if it was not obligatory from the past but he bought the animal for sacrifice, then if it is stolen or dies or is lost, he has to buy the animal and sacrifice it again.
- It will not be lawful to sell any part of the sacrificial animal because it is an object dedicated to Allah. However, leather can be sold but the money has to be donated to the poor. It is not lawful to pay the butcher by any part of the animal. Since it is also a kind of exchange that is like buying and selling. Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim. His remuneration has to be paid separately. However, if the butcher is poor, he can be given the meat of the sacrifice as a gift if he is not poor as a gift.
- If there is a child after purchasing the animal, then he should also sacrifice it with his mother – Tirmidhi. And before that, the milk of that animal can be fed but the condition is that the baby is not harmed. (Baihaqi)
The time of the Qurbani
A sacrifice is an act of worship related to a specific time. Just as the sacrifice will not be realized before this time, it will not be realized even if it is done later. Of course, it is different if it is realized as Kaza. For those who will perform the Eid prayer, the time of Qurbani will start after performing the Eid prayer. If the sacrificial animal is sacrificed before the Eid prayer, the sacrifice will not be performed. And the time of sacrifice will end with the sunset on the thirteenth day of the month of Jilhaj. Therefore, the time for sacrificing the sacrificial animal is four days, ten, eleven, twelve, and thirteenth of the month of Zilhajj.
Qurbani on behalf of the dead
Basically, the sacrifice should be made by the living person in time. Of course, if he wishes, he can share his reward with the living or dead relatives. As we see the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his Companions used to offer sacrifices on behalf of themselves and their families. However, it is not lawful to make a sacrifice on behalf of the deceased separately. There is no Saheeh hadeeth for this.
Qurbani on behalf of oneself and one’s family
Sacrifice must be made on behalf of oneself and one’s family. It is narrated on the authority of Ayesha and Abu Hurairah that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to offer a sacrifice, he bought two lambs. Which was large-bodied, horned, black-and-white, and castrated. One he sacrificed for those of his ummah who testified to the oneness of God and the message of His Messenger. The other has sacrificed for himself and his family. ( Ibn Majah)
One animal is enough for oneself and one’s family
In the hadith narrated on this subject, mother Ayesha (RA) said, the Prophet (SAW) asked her to bring a beautiful black and white dumba with horns, then she recited this dua-
In the name of God, O God! Accept it on behalf of Muhammad and his family and his ummah. Then he sacrificed the dumba. (Sahih Muslim, Hadith No. 198)
Sacrifice in part while on tour-
Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) said, “We were on a journey with the Prophet (SAW).” In this situation, the Eid of Qurbani came. Then we shared a cow in seven and a camel in ten. (Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibn Majah.)
However, it needs to be said that there is no Saheeh hadeeth in favor of the fact that seven families or ten families can participate in an animal while it is at home.
The Qurbani giver will refrain from all that
Narrated Umm Salamah: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever among you wishes to make a sacrifice should refrain from cutting his hair and nails after seeing the moon in the month of Zilhajj. Imam Muslim has narrated the hadith. In another of his descriptions, he should not touch anything from his hair and skin. According to another narration, the sacrificial animal will remain in this state until it is slaughtered.
Rules for sacrificial animal sacrifice
The sacrificer will sacrifice his sacrificial animal himself if he can sacrifice well. Because the Prophet (peace be upon him) sacrificed himself. And sacrifice is a means of attaining nearness to Allah Ta’ala. So everyone should try to sacrifice his own sacrifice.
Imam Bukhari (RA) said that the Companion Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (RA) instructed his daughters to sacrifice their sacrificial animals with their own hands. Fathul Bari. This instruction proves that girls can sacrifice sacrificial animals. However, it is permissible to delegate the responsibility of sacrificing the sacrificial animal to another. Because it has been narrated in the hadith of Sahih Muslim that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed sixty-three sacrificial animals with his own hands and entrusted the responsibility of slaughtering the rest to Ali (RA). (Sahih Muslim)
All the things that should be observed while sacrificing
- It is important to show kindness and grace to animals. Sacrifice in such a way that the animal does not suffer much and can easily die. Slaughter is done with a very sharp knife and it is pounded on the slaughter site with great speed and force.
- Bismillah should be said while sacrificing. Because it is obligatory to say. Because Allah Ta’ala says, eat from the one on whom the name of Allah has been pronounced. ( Surat al-An’am: 116)
And do not eat until the name of Allah has been uttered. That is a sin. (Surat an-Nam: Ayat 121)
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Eat whatever kills and so that the name of Allaah may be mentioned. (Bukhari, Muslim)
It is mustahabb to associate Allahu Akbar with Bismillah during the time of sacrifice. Of course, it is not lawful to add anything other than the dua of acceptance with it.
A dumba narrated from Jabir (RA) was brought. The Prophet (peace be upon him) sacrificed with his own hands and said, Bismillah waa Allahu Akbar, O Allah! This is from me and from those among my ummah who have not been able to make sacrifices. (Abu Dawood)
- It is haraam to cut off any other part of the animal before leaving it. Work such as twisting the neck, cutting the veins of the legs, peeling the skin, etc. cannot be done before it is known.
Sacrificial meat distribution policy
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): Then eat from it and feed the needy. (Surat al-Hajj: 26)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said about the meat of the sacrifice: Eat it yourself and feed and preserve others. (Bukhari, Muslim)
Eating also means giving to the needy by word and giving as a gift to the rich. The Qur’an and Hadith do not say how much they will eat, how much they will donate, and how much they will give as gifts. Therefore, the ulama ‘have said that it is mustahabb (good) to eat the meat of the Qurbani in three parts, one part for oneself, one part for the poor, and one part as a gift for relatives, friends, and neighbors.
The meat of the sacrifice can be preserved and eaten as long as desired. However, during the famine, it cannot be saved for more than three days.
The meat of the sacrifice is lawful to give to the disbeliever because of his lack, because he is a relative or neighbor, or because he is a fan of Islam. And that is the generosity of Islam.
Tags: qurbani dua, qurbani rules in islam, what is qurbani in islam, dua for qurbani, qurbani in islam, qurbani meaning in english, who is qurbani compulsory on, qurbani in english, what is qurbani in english, what is qurban, qurban in english, qurban in islam,